What Is Prop Trading Firm



Welcome to the world of prop trading firms, where the art of trading meets the science of finance. In this fast-paced and ever-evolving industry, prop trading firms play a vital role in the financial markets. If you’ve ever wondered what prop trading is all about, this article is here to provide you with an in-depth understanding.

Proprietary trading, or prop trading, refers to the practice of trading financial instruments with the firm’s own money, rather than client funds. It involves taking positions in various asset classes, such as stocks, options, futures, and currencies, with the aim of generating profits. While traditional trading firms execute trades on behalf of clients, prop trading firms focus on trading for their own accounts.

The primary role of a prop trading firm is to actively engage in speculative trading activities to generate profits. Unlike traditional investment firms, which typically rely on fees and commissions, prop trading firms operate on a proprietary basis. They use their own capital, expertise, and strategies to identify and exploit trading opportunities across different markets.

One of the key benefits of prop trading firms is the potential for significant financial rewards. Successful traders within these firms have the opportunity to earn substantial profits based on their trading performance. This financial incentive, coupled with the thrill and excitement of actively participating in the financial markets, attracts talented individuals with a passion for trading.

Prop trading firms typically have certain key features that set them apart from other financial institutions. These features include access to cutting-edge technology, sophisticated trading platforms, extensive market research and analysis, and a collaborative trading environment. The combination of these factors enables prop trading firms to stay competitive and capitalize on market opportunities.

In the next sections, we will delve deeper into how prop trading firms operate, the types of traders they employ, the selection process for traders, the risks involved, and the regulatory framework that governs their activities. By the end of this article, you will have a comprehensive understanding of the world of prop trading firms and the role they play in the financial markets.


Definition of Prop Trading

Proprietary trading, commonly known as prop trading, is the practice of trading financial instruments using a firm’s own capital. In prop trading, the firm takes on the role of the trader and assumes the risks associated with the trades. This sets it apart from traditional trading, where brokers or investment banks facilitate trades on behalf of clients.

Prop trading encompasses a wide range of asset classes, including stocks, bonds, options, futures, currencies, and commodities. The goal of prop trading is to generate profits by capitalizing on short-term price movements or exploiting market inefficiencies. Traders in prop trading firms employ various strategies, such as arbitrage, trend following, and statistical analysis, to identify profitable trading opportunities.

What distinguishes prop trading from other forms of trading is the use of the firm’s own capital. Unlike investing, where funds are sourced from external investors, prop trading firms use their own resources to fund trades. This allows them to have greater control over their trading strategies, decision-making processes, and risk management techniques.

Prop trading firms operate on the principle of risk-reward. They are willing to take on higher levels of risk in pursuit of higher potential profits. However, it’s important to note that risk management is a critical aspect of prop trading. Firms employ sophisticated risk management tools and strategies to mitigate potential losses and ensure the long-term sustainability of their trading operations.

Prop trading firms thrive on volatility and market dynamics. They actively seek out opportunities in both rising and falling markets, taking advantage of price fluctuations to generate profits. This ability to profit in any market condition sets prop trading apart from traditional investment strategies that primarily focus on long-term value appreciation.

Overall, prop trading plays a significant role in the financial markets. It provides liquidity and depth to the market, facilitates efficient price discovery, and contributes to the overall market efficiency. By utilizing their capital, expertise, and technology, prop trading firms serve as important participants in the global financial ecosystem.


Role of a Prop Trading Firm

A prop trading firm plays a multifaceted role in the financial markets, serving as a key participant and contributing to market efficiency and liquidity. Let’s explore some of the main roles and functions of a prop trading firm:

1. Market Making: One of the primary roles of a prop trading firm is market making. Market making involves providing liquidity by continuously quoting bid and ask prices for a particular financial instrument. By actively participating in the market and being willing to buy or sell at any given time, prop trading firms help ensure that there is a constant supply of tradable assets, enhancing market efficiency.

2. Arbitrage: Prop trading firms play a crucial role in the arbitrage space. Arbitrage refers to the practice of taking advantage of price discrepancies between different markets, exchanges, or instruments. Prop trading firms have the resources and technology to quickly identify and exploit such opportunities, contributing to price convergence and market efficiency.

3. Risk Management: Effective risk management is central to the functioning of a prop trading firm. As they trade with their own capital, these firms bear the risk associated with their trades. Risk managers in prop trading firms utilize advanced risk management techniques, such as position limits, stop-loss orders, and portfolio diversification, to safeguard against potential losses and ensure the firm’s long-term viability.

4. Profit Generation: At its core, the role of a prop trading firm is to generate profits through successful trading. Traders within these firms employ various strategies, techniques, and market insights to identify and capitalize on profitable trading opportunities. Their ability to extract profits from price movements and market inefficiencies contributes to the overall market liquidity and functioning.

5. Research and Analysis: Prop trading firms invest significant resources into research and analysis to gain a competitive edge in the market. They employ teams of analysts who study market trends, economic indicators, and company fundamentals to identify potential trading opportunities. This research-driven approach allows them to make informed trading decisions and stay ahead of the curve.

6. Technology and Infrastructure: Prop trading firms heavily rely on technology and infrastructure to execute trades quickly and efficiently. They invest in cutting-edge trading platforms, algorithmic trading systems, and high-speed connectivity to ensure fast and reliable trade execution. These technological capabilities enable prop trading firms to take advantage of short-term market fluctuations and stay adaptive in a dynamic trading environment.

By fulfilling these roles and functions, prop trading firms contribute to market liquidity, price efficiency, and the overall stability of the financial markets. Their active participation helps facilitate price discovery, reduce bid-ask spreads, and promote market fairness.


Benefits of Prop Trading Firms

Prop trading firms offer numerous benefits to traders, investors, and the financial markets as a whole. Let’s explore some of the key advantages of prop trading firms:

1. Profit Potential: Prop trading firms provide traders with the opportunity to generate substantial profits. Traders within these firms have the potential to earn significant monetary rewards based on their trading performance. This financial incentive attracts talented individuals who are motivated to excel in the fast-paced world of trading.

2. Capital Availability: One of the main benefits of prop trading firms is that they provide traders with access to a substantial amount of capital. Traders can utilize the firm’s capital to execute larger trades and take advantage of more opportunities in the market. This increased buying power can lead to higher potential returns and the ability to diversify trading strategies.

3. Enhanced Technology and Tools: Prop trading firms invest heavily in state-of-the-art technology and sophisticated trading tools. Traders in these firms have access to advanced trading platforms, real-time market data, and robust risk management systems. This technological advantage allows traders to execute trades swiftly, analyze market trends accurately, and mitigate risks effectively.

4. Learning and Development Opportunities: Prop trading firms create an environment that fosters continuous learning and professional development. Traders have the opportunity to work alongside experienced professionals, interact with a diverse group of traders, and gain exposure to different trading strategies and market conditions. This exposure can accelerate a trader’s learning curve and lead to personal and professional growth.

5. Collaboration and Networking: Prop trading firms provide a collaborative and supportive trading environment. Traders can share ideas, strategies, and insights with their peers, fostering a culture of collaboration and innovation. Additionally, these firms often organize networking events, conferences, and seminars, providing traders with valuable networking opportunities within the industry.

6. Independence and Autonomy: Prop trading firms offer traders independence and autonomy in their trading decisions. Traders have the freedom to develop and implement their trading strategies, adapt to market conditions, and take calculated risks based on their assessment of market trends. This level of autonomy allows traders to express their creativity and trading expertise.

7. Performance-Based Compensation: Prop trading firms typically offer performance-based compensation structures. Traders are rewarded based on their trading profits and performance metrics, such as return on investment (ROI) and risk-adjusted returns. This aligns the interests of the trader with the firm’s profitability and creates a performance-driven culture.

Overall, prop trading firms offer a rewarding and dynamic trading environment, providing traders with access to capital, cutting-edge technology, learning opportunities, and potential financial success. These benefits attract talented individuals with a passion for trading and contribute to the overall competitiveness and vibrancy of the financial markets.


Key Features of Prop Trading Firms

Prop trading firms are known for their unique characteristics and distinctive features that set them apart from traditional trading institutions. Let’s explore some of the key features of prop trading firms:

1. Capital and Financial Resources: Prop trading firms allocate a significant amount of capital for trading purposes. They leverage their financial resources to execute trades, take risks, and generate profits. This access to capital allows traders within these firms to participate in larger trades and pursue a wide range of trading strategies.

2. Cutting-Edge Technology: Prop trading firms invest heavily in advanced technology and trading infrastructure. They utilize high-speed trading platforms, algorithmic trading systems, and smart order routing to ensure fast and efficient trade execution. These technological advancements enable traders to capitalize on real-time market opportunities and stay competitive in a rapidly changing market environment.

3. Research and Analysis: Prop trading firms employ teams of analysts and researchers who conduct in-depth market analysis. These professionals study market trends, analyze economic indicators, and evaluate company fundamentals to identify potential trading opportunities. The research-driven approach of prop trading firms gives traders access to valuable insights and enhances their decision-making process.

4. Risk Management Tools and Techniques: Effective risk management is a critical aspect of prop trading firms. They implement sophisticated risk management tools and techniques to mitigate potential losses and protect the firm’s capital. Traders are provided with risk limits, stop-loss orders, and portfolio diversification strategies to manage their exposure to market volatility.

5. Collaborative Trading Environment: Prop trading firms foster a collaborative trading environment where traders can share ideas, strategies, and insights. This collaborative culture encourages teamwork, innovation, and the exchange of knowledge among traders. Regular discussions, brainstorming sessions, and sharing of best practices contribute to the overall growth and success of the firm.

6. Performance Evaluation and Metrics: Prop trading firms have well-defined performance evaluation systems and metrics. Traders are assessed based on factors such as their trading profits, risk-adjusted returns, and adherence to risk management guidelines. Performance evaluations help identify successful trading strategies, provide feedback for improvement, and facilitate reward and recognition for top-performing traders.

7. Continuous Learning and Development: Prop trading firms emphasize continuous learning and professional development. Traders are encouraged to enhance their skills, stay updated with market trends, and explore new trading methodologies. These firms often provide training programs, webinars, and workshops to support the learning needs of traders and foster their growth.

8. Market Connectivity: Prop trading firms establish strong relationships with various exchanges and liquidity providers. They have direct access to multiple markets, enabling traders to execute trades efficiently across different asset classes and geographies. This market connectivity facilitates quicker trade execution and access to a wide range of investment opportunities.

By leveraging their capital, advanced technology, research capabilities, and collaborative trading environment, prop trading firms create an environment where traders can thrive and capitalize on market opportunities. These key features contribute to the success and competitiveness of prop trading firms in the financial markets.


How Prop Trading Firms Operate

Prop trading firms operate in a unique and dynamic manner, combining trading expertise, advanced technology, and risk management techniques. Here’s a glimpse into how prop trading firms operate:

1. Market Analysis and Strategy Development: Prop trading firms conduct thorough market analysis to identify potential trading opportunities. They utilize fundamental analysis, technical analysis, and quantitative models to assess market conditions and trends. Based on this analysis, traders within the firm develop trading strategies that align with the firm’s risk appetite and profit objectives.

2. Trade Execution and Risk Management: Once a trading strategy is formulated, prop trading firms focus on executing trades swiftly and efficiently. They leverage cutting-edge trading platforms and execution algorithms to execute trades at the best available prices. Simultaneously, risk management techniques are employed to control exposure and monitor potential downside risks associated with trades.

3. Monitoring Market Movements: Prop trading firms closely monitor market movements in real-time. They keep a close eye on news announcements, economic events, and market indicators that may impact the prices of the assets they trade. This constant monitoring allows traders to identify emerging trends, assess market sentiment, and potentially capitalize on short-term price movements.

4. Trade Profitability Analysis: Prop trading firms regularly analyze the profitability of their trades. They assess the performance of individual trades, trading strategies, and portfolios as a whole. By analyzing past trading data, traders can identify patterns, strengths, and weaknesses, which enables them to refine their strategies and improve their overall profitability.

5. Risk Assessment and Mitigation: Risk assessment and mitigation are integral parts of prop trading firms’ operations. Traders and risk managers work together to assess the risks associated with potential trades and to implement risk mitigating measures. Position limits, stop-loss orders, and portfolio diversification are among the techniques used to manage risk effectively within the firm’s risk appetite.

6. Capital Allocation and Return on Investment: Prop trading firms carefully allocate their capital to various trading strategies and asset classes. They evaluate the potential return on investment (ROI) of each strategy and make allocation decisions accordingly. By diversifying their capital across multiple trading opportunities, firms aim to optimize returns while balancing risk exposure.

7. Performance Evaluation and Compensation: Prop trading firms evaluate the performance of traders using various metrics, including trading profits, risk-adjusted returns, and adherence to risk management guidelines. Traders who consistently deliver strong performance may be rewarded with bonuses and performance-based compensation structures. This incentivizes traders to strive for excellence and continually enhance their trading skills.

8. Compliance and Regulation: Prop trading firms adhere to strict compliance and regulatory frameworks to ensure the integrity and transparency of their operations. They comply with regulatory requirements imposed by financial authorities, such as reporting obligations, capital adequacy ratios, and risk management standards. Compliance procedures and internal controls are implemented to monitor and maintain compliance with these regulations.

In summary, prop trading firms operate by combining market analysis, strategy development, effective risk management, and robust trade execution. The goal is to maximize profitability while managing risk within the firm’s risk appetite. By operating in this manner, prop trading firms strive to consistently deliver strong trading results and maintain a competitive edge in the financial markets.


Types of Traders in a Prop Trading Firm

Prop trading firms employ various types of traders who play distinct roles within the firm. Each type of trader brings a unique skill set and trading style to the table. Here are some of the common types of traders you might find in a prop trading firm:

1. Scalpers: Scalpers are traders who aim to profit from small price movements over a short period. They typically execute a high volume of trades and focus on capturing small profits from the bid-ask spread. Scalpers rely on fast execution, advanced chart analysis, and market depth information to identify quick trading opportunities.

2. Trend followers: Trend followers identify and capitalize on trends in the market. They aim to catch trends early and ride them until the momentum fades. Trend followers utilize technical analysis techniques, patterns, and indicators to identify trends, set entry and exit points, and manage risk by trailing stop-loss orders.

3. Arbitrageurs: Arbitrageurs are traders who seek to profit from price discrepancies between different markets or instruments. They exploit temporary imbalances in prices by simultaneously buying and selling related assets to lock in a risk-free profit. Arbitrageurs require real-time market data, advanced technology, and efficient trade execution to execute trades quickly and capture price differences.

4. Quantitative Traders: Quantitative traders, also known as quants, utilize mathematical models and algorithms to analyze market data and make trading decisions. They develop and implement automated trading strategies based on historical data, statistical analysis, and mathematical models. Quantitative traders heavily rely on coding skills, data analysis, and back-testing techniques to fine-tune their trading strategies.

5. Options Traders: Options traders specialize in trading options contracts on various underlying assets. They take positions in call and put options, aiming to profit from changes in the price of the underlying asset or volatility in the options market. Options traders use advanced options pricing models, volatility analysis, and option strategies such as spreads and straddles to predict and manage risk.

6. Fundamentals-based Traders: Fundamentals-based traders focus on analyzing company and market fundamentals to identify trading opportunities. They assess factors such as earnings, revenues, financial ratios, and macroeconomic indicators to make informed trading decisions. Fundamentals-based traders analyze company financial statements, news releases, and industry trends to understand the underlying value of a security.

7. Day Traders: Day traders aim to profit from intraday price movements. They open and close trades within a single trading session, avoiding overnight market exposure. Day traders use technical analysis, chart patterns, and real-time market data to identify short-term trends and execute trades based on short-term price fluctuations.

8. High-Frequency Traders: High-frequency traders employ advanced algorithms and high-speed trading systems to execute a large number of trades within fractions of a second. They take advantage of tiny price discrepancies and market inefficiencies that occur in milliseconds. High-frequency traders heavily rely on low-latency trading infrastructure and co-location services to gain a competitive advantage.

These are just a few examples of the types of traders you may find in a prop trading firm. In reality, many traders combine elements from different trading styles to create their own unique approach. The diversity of trading styles within prop trading firms helps facilitate a dynamic and innovative trading environment.


Selection Process for Traders

The selection process for traders in prop trading firms is rigorous and designed to identify individuals with the skills, knowledge, and mindset necessary to succeed in the dynamic world of trading. Let’s explore the typical steps involved in the selection process:

1. Online Application: The process usually begins with interested candidates submitting an online application. The application typically requires candidates to provide information about their educational background, trading experience, and relevant skills. Some prop trading firms may also ask candidates to complete online assessments or provide a trading performance track record.

2. Initial Screening: After reviewing the applications, prop trading firms conduct an initial screening process to shortlist candidates who meet the basic criteria. This stage may involve reviewing resumes, assessing academic achievements, and evaluating any relevant experience in trading or finance.

3. Aptitude Tests: Shortlisted candidates are often required to undergo aptitude tests, which assess their numerical and analytical skills, problem-solving abilities, and critical thinking. These tests help determine if candidates have the necessary cognitive abilities to perform well in trading roles.

4. Interviews: Successful candidates from the aptitude tests move on to the interview stage. The interviews may take different formats, including one-on-one interviews, panel interviews, or group interviews. The purpose is to assess the candidate’s understanding of financial markets, trading strategies, risk management, and their ability to think quickly and make informed decisions under pressure.

5. Market Simulation or Trading Challenge: Some prop trading firms conduct market simulations or trading challenges to assess a candidate’s trading skills and ability to manage risks. These simulations or challenges may involve making simulated trades based on real market data and evaluating the candidate’s performance and decision-making process.

6. Trader Evaluation: In some cases, prop trading firms may require finalists to go through a trader evaluation phase. During this phase, candidates may be given a simulated trading account to trade with real-time market data for a specified period. The firm evaluates their trading performance, risk management skills, and ability to generate profits within a controlled environment.

7. Hiring Decision: After conducting all the necessary evaluations and assessments, the prop trading firm makes a hiring decision. The decision is based on a combination of factors, including the candidate’s trading ability, market knowledge, suitability for the firm’s trading strategies, and overall fit within the organization.

It’s important to note that the selection process may vary across different prop trading firms. Some firms may place more emphasis on academic qualifications and prior trading experience, while others may prioritize candidates with strong analytical skills and a demonstrated passion for the financial markets. Overall, the selection process is designed to identify individuals who have the potential to excel as traders and contribute to the success of the prop trading firm.


Risks and Challenges of Prop Trading

Prop trading comes with its fair share of risks and challenges. It is vital for traders and prop trading firms to be aware of these risks and actively manage them. Let’s explore some of the main risks and challenges associated with prop trading:

1. Market Volatility: Prop trading is inherently exposed to market volatility. Sudden price fluctuations and unexpected market events can lead to significant losses if positions are not properly managed. Traders need to have effective risk management strategies in place to mitigate the impact of market volatility.

2. Risk of Losses: Prop trading involves the risk of financial losses. Traders need to carefully assess and manage risk when entering trades. Without proper risk management processes and guidelines, a series of losses can have a detrimental impact on the overall profitability of the prop trading firm. Risk management techniques, such as position sizing, stop-loss orders, and diversification, are essential in protecting capital and minimizing losses.

3. Continuous Learning and Adaptation: The financial markets evolve rapidly, and traders need to continually learn, adapt, and refine their strategies. Staying updated with market trends, new trading techniques, and changing regulations is crucial to remain competitive. Traders must be willing to continuously expand their knowledge and skills to navigate the ever-changing landscape of prop trading successfully.

4. Technology and Operational Risks: Reliance on technology exposes prop trading firms to operational risks. System failures, technological glitches, and connectivity issues can disrupt trade execution and potentially lead to losses. Prop trading firms need to have robust infrastructure, backup systems, and contingency plans in place to manage such risks effectively.

5. Psychological and Emotional Challenges: Day-to-day trading can be emotionally challenging. Traders must overcome psychological biases, manage stress, and make rational decisions in high-pressure situations. Emotional discipline, patience, and maintaining a calm mindset are essential qualities for traders to navigate the ups and downs of the market successfully.

6. Regulatory Compliance: Prop trading firms operate within a complex regulatory landscape. Adhering to regulatory requirements, reporting obligations, and maintaining compliance with applicable laws is crucial. Failure to comply with regulations can result in legal consequences and reputational damage for both traders and prop trading firms.

7. Liquidity Risks: Certain market conditions, such as low liquidity or sudden market disruptions, can pose challenges for prop trading firms. Illiquid markets may make it difficult to enter or exit positions at desired prices. Traders need to be prepared for such situations and adapt their trading strategies accordingly.

8. Competition: The prop trading industry is highly competitive, with numerous firms vying for profitable trading opportunities. Traders need to stay innovative, develop unique trading strategies or approaches, and continually enhance their skills to gain a competitive edge in the market.

Managing these risks and challenges requires a combination of skill, experience, discipline, and effective risk management practices. Traders and prop trading firms must stay vigilant and adapt to the ever-changing market conditions to navigate the risks and seize profitable trading opportunities.


Regulation of Prop Trading Firms

The operation of prop trading firms is subject to various regulatory frameworks designed to promote market integrity, protect investors, and maintain financial stability. Let’s explore the key aspects of the regulation of prop trading firms:

1. Financial Regulatory Authorities: Prop trading firms are typically regulated by financial regulatory authorities such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the United Kingdom, and the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) in the European Union. These authorities set guidelines, rules, and regulations that prop trading firms must adhere to.

2. Capital Requirements: Regulatory authorities impose capital adequacy requirements on prop trading firms to ensure they maintain sufficient financial resources to support their trading activities and withstand potential losses. These capital requirements help mitigate risks and ensure the long-term stability and solvency of the firms.

3. Risk Management Standards: Regulatory authorities expect prop trading firms to have robust risk management systems and practices in place. Firms are required to establish comprehensive risk assessment processes, implement risk controls, and regularly monitor and report their risk exposure. The aim is to identify and manage risks effectively to protect the firm’s capital and maintain market stability.

4. Reporting Obligations: Prop trading firms are subject to various reporting requirements to provide transparency to regulatory authorities and the public. Firms are obliged to report on their trading activities, positions, financial statements, and compliance with regulatory standards. Regular reporting ensures regulators have access to timely and accurate information for supervision and oversight purposes.

5. Compliance with Market Abuse Regulations: Prop trading firms must comply with market abuse regulations that prohibit insider trading, market manipulation, and other fraudulent practices. These regulations are in place to maintain market integrity, protect investors, and ensure fair and transparent trading in the financial markets.

6. Licensing and Registration: Prop trading firms and their individual traders are typically required to obtain licenses or register with regulatory authorities. These licenses and registrations help ensure that individuals and firms meet certain competency standards, adhere to ethical practices, and operate within the legal framework set by the regulatory authorities.

7. Ongoing Supervision and Audits: Regulatory authorities conduct ongoing supervision and audits of prop trading firms to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. This includes regular inspections, examinations, and review of the firm’s operations, risk management practices, financial records, and trading activities. Supervision aims to identify any potential misconduct, market abuse, or non-compliance with regulatory standards.

8. International Cooperation and Standards: Regulatory authorities collaborate internationally to establish harmonized regulatory standards for prop trading firms. This collaboration ensures consistency, cooperation, and information sharing between regulators to maintain the integrity of global financial markets and mitigate cross-border risks.

Regulation of prop trading firms is crucial to safeguard market participants, maintain market integrity, and promote financial stability. By adhering to regulatory guidelines, prop trading firms contribute to a well-regulated and transparent financial system.



Prop trading firms play an integral role in the financial markets, combining trading expertise, advanced technology, and risk management strategies to generate profits. These firms operate with their own capital, taking on the risks associated with trading various financial instruments. Throughout this article, we have explored the definition of prop trading, the role of prop trading firms, their benefits, key features, and how they operate.

Prop trading firms offer traders significant profit potential, access to capital, and a supportive trading environment. Traders within these firms utilize cutting-edge technology, conduct in-depth market analysis, and implement rigorous risk management practices to navigate market volatility and generate profits. The diversity of trading styles, such as scalping, trend following, and quantitative trading, contributes to the dynamic nature of prop trading firms.

However, prop trading also comes with risks and challenges. Traders must navigate market volatility, manage risk exposure, and continuously adapt to changing market conditions. Regulatory authorities play a crucial role in overseeing and regulating prop trading firms, ensuring compliance with capital requirements, risk management standards, and reporting obligations. This regulatory oversight promotes market integrity and protects investors.

In conclusion, prop trading firms provide a platform for talented traders to thrive in the financial markets. Through their sophisticated strategies, advanced technology, and critical risk management practices, these firms contribute to market liquidity, price efficiency, and overall market stability. Traders within prop trading firms have the opportunity to excel, earn significant profits, and continuously develop their skills in a collaborative and competitive trading environment.

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