How Is Bitcoin Regulated


What is Bitcoin Regulation?

Bitcoin, the world’s most well-known cryptocurrency, has gained significant popularity and adoption over the years. However, with its decentralized nature and borderless transactions, questions arise about how Bitcoin should be regulated. Bitcoin regulation refers to the establishment of legal frameworks and guidelines by governments and financial authorities to oversee the use, trading, and taxation of Bitcoin.

The primary goal of Bitcoin regulation is to ensure the security of users, protect against fraud, money laundering, and other illicit activities, and promote stability in the cryptocurrency market.

Regulations surrounding Bitcoin vary from country to country. Some nations have embraced Bitcoin and its underlying technology, blockchain, and adopted progressive regulatory measures to foster innovation and protect investors. Others have taken a more cautious approach or even banned cryptocurrency altogether.

Bitcoin regulation typically entails licensing and oversight of cryptocurrency exchanges and wallet providers, Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC) regulations, taxation and reporting requirements for Bitcoin transactions, securities regulations for Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), consumer protection mechanisms, and government concerns related to digital currencies.

It is important to note that Bitcoin regulation is a complex and rapidly evolving field. Regulators are continuously grappling with the challenges presented by the innovative and decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies while striving to strike a balance between fostering innovation and protecting consumers.

In the next sections, we will explore the specifics of Bitcoin regulation in different countries, the oversight of exchanges and wallet providers, AML and KYC regulations, taxation and reporting requirements, securities regulations for ICOs, consumer protection measures, and the concerns and challenges faced by governments when dealing with cryptocurrencies.


Why Does Bitcoin Need Regulation?

As Bitcoin continues to gain traction and global recognition, the need for regulation becomes increasingly evident. While Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network and offers the promise of financial freedom for its users, there are several reasons why regulation is necessary.

First and foremost, regulation is crucial for protecting consumers and investors. Without regulation, there is a higher risk of fraud, scams, and manipulation within the cryptocurrency market. By implementing proper regulatory measures, governments can enforce transparency, accountability, and fair practices among individuals and entities involved in Bitcoin transactions.

Additionally, regulation helps to combat money laundering and illicit activities. Being a digital currency, Bitcoin can be used for illegal purposes due to its pseudonymous nature. Effective regulation, along with robust Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC) measures, can help prevent the misuse of Bitcoin for criminal activities.

Moreover, regulation provides stability and confidence in the market. The cryptocurrency industry is still relatively new and volatile, which can discourage mainstream adoption. Regulatory frameworks can help mitigate risks and provide a sense of security for both businesses and users, leading to increased participation and investment in Bitcoin.

Regulation also plays a significant role in addressing taxation and reporting requirements. The taxation of Bitcoin transactions can be complex due to the digital nature of the currency and its potential for cross-border transactions. Clear regulations ensure that individuals and businesses understand their tax obligations and facilitate accurate reporting of Bitcoin-related income or gains.

Furthermore, regulation is crucial for preventing systemic risks and maintaining the integrity of the financial system. Bitcoin’s growing popularity has led to concerns about its potential impact on traditional financial institutions. By implementing regulations, governments can establish mechanisms to monitor and manage any potential risks associated with the use of Bitcoin.

Lastly, regulation helps to foster innovation and ensure the long-term sustainability of the cryptocurrency industry. Clear guidelines and legal frameworks provide a level playing field for businesses to operate, attract investments, and develop new technologies based on blockchain and cryptocurrencies.

In summary, Bitcoin needs regulation for consumer protection, prevention of illicit activities, market stability, taxation compliance, systemic risk mitigation, and fostering innovation. While striking the right balance between regulation and preserving the decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies is challenging, it is essential to establish legal frameworks that promote responsible and sustainable growth of the Bitcoin ecosystem.


How is Bitcoin Regulated in Different Countries?

Bitcoin regulation varies significantly from country to country, with some nations embracing cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology, while others are more cautious or even restrictive in their approach. Let’s explore how Bitcoin is regulated in different parts of the world.

United States: The United States has taken a comprehensive approach to Bitcoin regulation. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) classifies cryptocurrencies as money transmitters and imposes AML and KYC regulations on cryptocurrency exchanges. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulates ICOs and considers some cryptocurrencies as securities.

China: China has taken a more restrictive stance towards cryptocurrencies. The country banned initial coin offerings (ICOs) and exchanges in 2017. However, it continues to develop and experiment with its own digital currency, the digital yuan.

Japan: Japan is one of the most welcoming countries for Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. It introduced a licensing framework for cryptocurrency exchanges and recognizes Bitcoin as legal tender. Japan’s Financial Services Agency (FSA) oversees the regulation and supervision of cryptocurrency exchanges.

South Korea: South Korea also has a favorable view of cryptocurrencies but has implemented strict regulations to ensure investor protection. Cryptocurrency exchanges must comply with AML and KYC regulations and meet cybersecurity standards. The country has established a legal framework for ICOs.

European Union: In the European Union (EU), each member state has its own approach to Bitcoin regulation. However, the EU has introduced the 5th Anti-Money Laundering Directive (AMLD5), which brings cryptocurrencies and crypto exchanges under AML and KYC regulations.

United Kingdom: The UK considers cryptocurrencies as property and subjects them to capital gains tax. Cryptocurrency exchanges must be registered with the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and comply with AML regulations.

Australia: Australia has implemented a regulatory framework that requires cryptocurrency exchanges to be registered with the Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC) and comply with AML and KYC regulations.

These are just a few examples of how Bitcoin is regulated in different countries. It is crucial to stay updated on the regulatory landscape as it continues to evolve. The approach to Bitcoin regulation can range from strict oversight to supportive frameworks that encourage innovation.

While regulatory measures aim to protect users and maintain financial stability, finding the right balance between regulation and fostering innovation remains a challenge. Global coordination and collaboration among regulators can lead to more harmonized and effective approaches to Bitcoin regulation in the future.


Regulation of Exchanges and Wallet Providers

One of the key aspects of Bitcoin regulation is the oversight and regulation of cryptocurrency exchanges and wallet providers. These intermediaries play a crucial role in facilitating the buying, selling, and storage of Bitcoin. Let’s explore how these entities are regulated.

Cryptocurrency Exchanges: Cryptocurrency exchanges act as online platforms where users can trade Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Regulatory measures for exchanges aim to enhance transparency, security, and investor protection.

Many countries require cryptocurrency exchanges to register with financial regulatory authorities and adhere to specific regulations. This includes obtaining licenses, implementing robust Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC) procedures, and adhering to cybersecurity standards. Exchanges may also be subject to regular audits and reporting requirements to ensure compliance.

In addition, some jurisdictions have implemented specific regulations for Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), which often take place on cryptocurrency exchanges. These regulations may include strict disclosure requirements and investor protection measures.

Wallet Providers: Wallet providers, or digital wallets, are responsible for storing and securing users’ Bitcoin. They are subject to regulations that focus on ensuring the safety of users’ funds.

Depending on the jurisdiction, wallet providers may be required to implement stringent security measures to protect against hacking and unauthorized access. They may also have to comply with AML and KYC regulations, especially if the wallet provider offers additional services, such as exchanging Bitcoin for fiat currency.

Overall, the regulation of exchanges and wallet providers aims to ensure the integrity of the cryptocurrency ecosystem. By implementing proper oversight and monitoring, regulators seek to minimize the risks associated with fraudulent activities, hacking, money laundering, and other illegal activities.

However, it is important to note that the level and type of regulation can vary significantly from one country to another. Some jurisdictions have more stringent requirements, while others may have more relaxed approaches. The evolving nature of the cryptocurrency industry also poses regulatory challenges, as authorities strive to keep up with technological advancements and new business models.

To effectively regulate exchanges and wallet providers, regulators need to strike a balance between fostering innovation and ensuring consumer protection. Collaboration between governments, industry stakeholders, and regulatory bodies is vital for developing robust regulatory frameworks that address the unique characteristics and challenges associated with Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.


AML and KYC Regulations for Bitcoin

Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC) regulations are vital components of Bitcoin regulation, aiming to prevent illicit activities and enhance the transparency and security of cryptocurrency transactions. Let’s delve into how AML and KYC regulations apply to Bitcoin.

AML Regulations: AML regulations require cryptocurrency exchanges and other virtual asset service providers to implement measures to detect and prevent money laundering and terrorist financing. This involves conducting thorough customer due diligence, monitoring transactions, and reporting suspicious activities to the relevant authorities.

AML regulations typically require exchanges to identify and verify the identity of their customers. This involves collecting personal information, such as name, address, and identification documents. Exchanges must also implement robust transaction monitoring systems to detect any suspicious or unusual activities.

The implementation of AML regulations helps mitigate the risk of Bitcoin being used for illegal purposes, such as money laundering, drug trafficking, or financing terrorist activities. By having a mechanism in place to monitor and report suspicious transactions, regulators aim to maintain the integrity of the financial system and protect users.

KYC Regulations: KYC regulations complement AML requirements by establishing a process through which cryptocurrency exchanges verify the identity of their customers. KYC procedures involve collecting information about users and verifying that information against reliable and independent sources.

Exchanges are typically required to verify customers’ identities before allowing them to trade Bitcoin or withdraw funds. This verification process ensures that users are who they claim to be, reducing the risk of fraudulent activities and unauthorized access to accounts.

KYC regulations also contribute to the prevention of identity theft and fraud. By having accurate and up-to-date information about their customers, exchanges can better protect users’ funds and enhance the overall security of the platform.

Furthermore, KYC regulations enable exchanges to comply with AML requirements and cooperate with law enforcement agencies when necessary. The availability of customer information assists in the investigation and prosecution of criminal activities involving Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

While AML and KYC regulations are crucial for combating illicit activities and ensuring the legitimacy of Bitcoin transactions, there are ongoing debates about the balance between privacy and regulatory oversight. Striking the right balance between privacy and compliance is essential to protect users while also maintaining the integrity of the financial system.

As the cryptocurrency industry continues to evolve, regulators are expected to refine AML and KYC regulations to keep up with technological advancements and emerging risks. Collaboration between governments, industry experts, and regulatory bodies is key to establishing effective and practical AML and KYC frameworks for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.


Taxation and Reporting of Bitcoin Transactions

Bitcoin taxation and reporting requirements are essential aspects of Bitcoin regulation as governments seek to ensure proper tax compliance and prevent tax evasion. Let’s explore how Bitcoin transactions are taxed and reported in many jurisdictions around the world.

Capital Gains Tax: In most countries, Bitcoin is treated as property for tax purposes. Therefore, any gains made from the sale or exchange of Bitcoin are subject to capital gains tax. The tax rate on such gains may vary depending on the holding period and the individual’s tax bracket. It is crucial for Bitcoin users to accurately track and report their gains to meet their tax obligations.

Income Tax: In some cases, Bitcoin transactions may be subject to income tax if they are considered as a form of payment for goods or services. If a person receives Bitcoin as payment for their work, the value of the Bitcoin at the time of receipt is considered as income and must be reported accordingly.

Reporting Requirements: Many tax authorities require individuals and businesses to report their Bitcoin-related transactions when filing their tax returns. This usually involves providing details on the sales, purchases, or exchanges of Bitcoin, as well as any gains or losses incurred during the taxable period.

Foreign Account Reporting: Some countries have specific reporting requirements for individuals or businesses holding Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies in foreign accounts. These requirements aim to prevent offshore tax evasion by ensuring that individuals and businesses declare their overseas holdings accurately.

Information Sharing: In recent years, tax authorities around the world have increased their efforts to obtain information about individuals and businesses involved in cryptocurrency transactions. Governments have collaborated with exchanges and other intermediaries to collect and share data on users’ transactions to enforce tax compliance.

Challenges and Compliance: Taxation of Bitcoin transactions presents some challenges due to the digital and decentralized nature of cryptocurrencies. Accurately determining the fair market value of Bitcoin at the time of each transaction can be complex, especially in cases where Bitcoin is exchanged for other cryptocurrencies or used for purchasing goods or services.

Additionally, ensuring comprehensive compliance with tax reporting requirements for Bitcoin can be challenging for individuals and businesses that engage in numerous transactions. Adequate record-keeping and utilizing specialized tools or accounting services can help simplify the process and ensure accurate reporting.

To navigate the complexities of Bitcoin taxation and reporting, it is important for individuals and businesses to familiarize themselves with the specific regulations in their respective jurisdictions. Seeking guidance from tax professionals well-versed in cryptocurrency tax matters can also be beneficial in ensuring compliance and avoiding any potential penalties or legal issues.

As the regulatory landscape continues to evolve, governments are likely to refine and update their tax policies concerning Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Staying informed about these changes and proactively complying with tax obligations is crucial for Bitcoin users to ensure a transparent and legitimate approach to their cryptocurrency transactions.


Securities Regulations for Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)

Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) have emerged as a popular way for blockchain-based startups to raise funds by issuing digital tokens or coins. However, due to the potential for fraud and investor risks, securities regulations have been established to protect investors. Let’s explore how ICOs are regulated as securities in many jurisdictions.

Definition of Securities: In most countries, securities regulations are designed to protect investors by regulating the issuance and trading of financial instruments. While the classification of ICOs as securities may vary from country to country, many jurisdictions consider certain ICOs to fall under the definition of securities.

Regulatory Approach: Regulators aim to ensure that ICOs comply with existing securities laws to protect investors’ interests. This includes the requirement to register the offering, provide disclosure documents, and adhere to anti-fraud provisions. The regulatory approach varies across jurisdictions, with some countries adopting a more stringent approach while others focus on guiding issuance without stifling innovation.

Registration Requirements: In jurisdictions where ICOs are classified as securities, issuers are often required to register their offerings with the relevant regulatory authorities. The registration process involves providing extensive documentation and meeting various disclosure requirements, including details about the project, team, token economics, and potential risks associated with the investment.

Investor Protection: Securities regulations for ICOs aim to protect investors by ensuring they have access to adequate information to make informed investment decisions. This includes providing clear and transparent disclosures about the project, its financials, and any risks involved. It also requires adherence to anti-fraud measures to prevent misleading or false information from being disseminated to potential investors.

Investor Accreditation: Some jurisdictions have implemented investor accreditation rules, which restrict participation in ICOs to accredited investors. Accredited investors are typically individuals or institutions that meet specific income or net worth criteria. These rules aim to ensure that ICO investments are limited to individuals who have a higher understanding of investment risks.

Enforcement and Compliance: Regulatory authorities actively monitor ICOs to identify potential violations of securities regulations. Non-compliance with regulatory requirements may result in penalties, fines, or even criminal charges. Enforcement actions aim to maintain market integrity, protect investors, and deter fraudulent or deceptive practices in the ICO space.

Global Coordination: The regulation of ICOs as securities is a topic of global concern. Regulatory bodies around the world are collaborating and exchanging information to develop international guidelines and frameworks for ICO regulation. This collaboration is essential to address potential challenges associated with cross-border ICO offerings and ensure consistent investor protection standards.

While ICOs offer exciting opportunities for fundraising and innovation, they also carry inherent risks for investors. Securities regulations for ICOs play a crucial role in protecting investors and maintaining market integrity. By ensuring compliance with these regulations, governments and regulatory bodies aim to strike a balance between fostering innovation and safeguarding investor interests in this rapidly evolving blockchain ecosystem.


Consumer Protection and Fraud Prevention in Bitcoin

Consumer protection and fraud prevention are critical aspects of Bitcoin regulation, as the digital nature of cryptocurrency transactions can leave users vulnerable to various risks. Let’s explore the measures implemented to safeguard consumers and combat fraud in the Bitcoin ecosystem.

Educating Users: Promoting education and awareness about Bitcoin and its associated risks is essential for consumer protection. Governments, regulatory bodies, and industry organizations provide educational resources to help users better understand the unique characteristics of Bitcoin, such as irreversible transactions and the importance of secure wallet storage.

Security Best Practices: Protecting against fraud requires users to adopt robust security practices. This includes keeping their private keys secure, using hardware wallets or reputable software wallets, enabling two-factor authentication, and exercising caution when interacting with unknown or unverified entities online.

Industry Standards and Guidelines: Regulatory bodies and industry organizations have implemented standards and guidelines for businesses operating in the Bitcoin space, aiming to promote best practices and protect consumers. These standards cover areas such as security, privacy, customer support, and transparency in financial transactions.

Regulation of Exchanges: Cryptocurrency exchanges, which act as intermediaries for buying and selling Bitcoin, are subject to various regulations to protect consumers. These regulations include robust Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Know Your Customer (KYC) measures, implementing secure systems to protect user funds, and providing transparent disclosure of fees and trading practices.

Dispute Resolution: Consumer protection mechanisms also involve establishing dispute resolution processes for Bitcoin transactions. This may include regulatory oversight of exchanges to ensure fair and efficient resolution of disputes, as well as avenues for users to seek redress in cases of fraudulent or unauthorized transactions.

Scam and Fraud Prevention: Governments and industry organizations work together to identify and combat scams and fraudulent activities in the Bitcoin ecosystem. This involves monitoring and reporting suspicious activities, educating users about common scams, and working with law enforcement agencies to investigate and prosecute fraudsters.

Regulatory Enforcement: Regulatory bodies actively enforce consumer protection regulations in the Bitcoin space. They may conduct audits, inspections, and investigations to ensure compliance with regulations, issue fines or penalties for non-compliance, and take legal action against entities engaging in fraudulent or deceptive practices.

User Complaint Channels: Governments often provide channels for consumers to lodge complaints regarding fraudulent activities or scams related to Bitcoin. These complaint channels help users report incidents, seek assistance, and receive guidance on how to navigate the complexities of cryptocurrency transactions.

While efforts are being made to enhance consumer protection in the Bitcoin ecosystem, it is important for individuals to take personal responsibility for their own security. Being diligent, staying informed, and using trusted sources can go a long way in protecting oneself from scams and fraudulent activities.

Continued collaboration between governments, regulatory bodies, industry players, and users is crucial to shaping effective consumer protection measures. As the Bitcoin ecosystem evolves, regulatory frameworks and industry practices will further evolve to safeguard consumers and foster a secure and trustworthy environment for Bitcoin transactions.


Government Concerns and Cryptocurrency Committees

Governments around the world have expressed concerns about the rise of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and have established cryptocurrency committees to address these concerns. Let’s delve into the key concerns and the role of these committees in shaping cryptocurrency regulations.

Financial Stability: One major concern for governments is the potential impact of cryptocurrencies on financial stability. Due to their decentralized and unregulated nature, cryptocurrencies have the potential to disrupt traditional financial systems. Cryptocurrency committees are tasked with assessing the risks and proposing regulatory measures to maintain stability in the financial market.

Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing: Governments are also concerned about the potential misuse of cryptocurrencies for illicit activities such as money laundering and terrorism financing. Cryptocurrency committees work closely with regulatory authorities to develop and enforce Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regulations, Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements, and transaction monitoring systems to combat these risks.

Consumer Protection: Protecting consumers from scams, fraud, and market manipulation is a significant concern. Cryptocurrency committees aim to establish laws and regulations that promote transparency, fair practices, and investor protection. They work towards ensuring proper disclosure of risks, regulating exchanges, and developing mechanisms for dispute resolution.

Market Integrity: Maintaining the integrity of cryptocurrency markets is another concern for governments. Committees collaborate with regulatory bodies to prevent market manipulation, insider trading, and fraud. They monitor exchanges, investigate suspicious activities, and take enforcement actions against entities engaging in fraudulent or deceptive practices.

Regulatory Frameworks: Cryptocurrency committees play a crucial role in shaping regulatory frameworks for cryptocurrencies. They analyze the existing legal and regulatory landscape, assess the impact of cryptocurrencies on various sectors, consult with industry experts and stakeholders, and propose legislative changes or guidelines to foster responsible innovation and protect national interests.

Blockchain Technology Adoption: In addition to concerns, many governments recognize the potential benefits of blockchain technology and aim to foster its adoption. Cryptocurrency committees often explore ways to harness the potential of blockchain in areas such as supply chain management, healthcare, finance, and public sector services. They develop strategies to promote the use of blockchain in a secure and regulated manner.

International Coordination: Given the borderless nature of cryptocurrencies, international cooperation and coordination are vital. Cryptocurrency committees engage in collaboration with other countries, international organizations, and market participants to exchange information, develop global guidelines, and address cross-border challenges related to cryptocurrencies.

Public Education: Cryptocurrency committees also focus on educating the public about cryptocurrencies and the associated risks. They disseminate information about the benefits and potential pitfalls of cryptocurrencies, provide resources for individuals and businesses to enhance their understanding, and promote responsible usage.

By addressing concerns and developing regulatory frameworks, cryptocurrency committees aim to strike a balance between encouraging innovation and protecting national interests. The dynamic nature of the cryptocurrency ecosystem requires continuous monitoring, assessment, and adjustment of regulations to ensure consumer protection, financial stability, and the responsible growth of cryptocurrencies.


Regulatory Challenges and Future Outlook for Bitcoin

Bitcoin regulation poses several challenges for regulators worldwide due to the unique characteristics of cryptocurrencies. However, as the technology continues to evolve and gain mainstream adoption, efforts are being made to address these challenges and shape the future regulatory landscape for Bitcoin.

Regulatory Clarity: One of the key challenges in Bitcoin regulation is the lack of global consensus on how to classify and regulate cryptocurrencies. Different jurisdictions have varying approaches and interpretations, creating regulatory fragmentation. Achieving regulatory clarity and harmonization, both within countries and across borders, is crucial for fostering innovation, market confidence, and international collaboration.

Technological Complexity: Bitcoin operates on a decentralized and technologically advanced platform, which poses challenges for regulators unfamiliar with blockchain technology. Understanding the intricacies of Bitcoin and its underlying technology is necessary to develop effective regulations that balance innovation with consumer protection and financial stability. To address this, more efforts are needed to educate regulators and policymakers on the technical aspects of Bitcoin.

Addressing Global Risks: Bitcoin’s borderless nature and potential for cross-border transactions raise concerns about money laundering, terrorism financing, and tax evasion. Regulators need to collaborate on an international level to develop strategies and mechanisms to address these global risks effectively. Information sharing, coordination, and cooperation among governments and regulatory bodies are crucial to combat illicit activities associated with cryptocurrencies.

Promoting Innovation: Balancing the need for consumer protection and regulatory oversight with fostering innovation is a delicate task. Regulators must strike the right balance to avoid stifling technological advancements and the potential benefits that cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology can bring. Encouraging regulatory sandboxes, pilot programs, and engaging with industry stakeholders can foster responsible innovation while maintaining proper oversight.

Protecting Investors: With the rise of fraudulent schemes and scams in the cryptocurrency space, protecting investors is a top priority for regulators. Implementing robust investor protection measures, such as clear disclosure requirements, enforcing stringent AML and KYC regulations, and facilitating efficient dispute resolution mechanisms, can help safeguard investors from potential risks.

Adapting to Changing Market Dynamics: The cryptocurrency landscape is dynamic and evolves rapidly. Regulators must be agile and adaptable to keep pace with emerging risks and evolving market dynamics. Continuous monitoring of the cryptocurrency market, close collaboration with industry participants, and proactive assessment of the regulatory framework are necessary to ensure the effectiveness of regulation and maintain market integrity.

Future Outlook: The future outlook for Bitcoin regulation is expected to be a balance between regulation and innovation. Regulators are gradually embracing cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology, recognizing their potential benefits and impact on the global financial system. Regulatory frameworks are likely to evolve to provide clarity, protect consumer interests, and foster responsible growth. Additionally, increased international collaboration and coordination are expected to shape global standards and frameworks for Bitcoin regulation.

As the cryptocurrency ecosystem matures, it is crucial for regulators to stay informed, engage with the industry, and collaborate with other jurisdictions. By addressing regulatory challenges and fostering a supportive environment for Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, regulators can cultivate an ecosystem that promotes innovation, enhances financial inclusion, and protects the interests of market participants.

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