Older blog entries for AI4U (starting at number 62)

Artificial Intelligence in Russian

Fri.30.DEC.2011 -- Russian AI Bootstrap Words

In the ru111229.html version of the Dushka Russian AI we coded the AudBuffer to load Russian characters during SpeechAct and the OutBuffer to move each Russian word into a right-justified position subject to the changing of inflectional endings based on grammatical number and case for nouns, and number and person for verbs. Next we need to determine which forms of a Russian word are ideal for storage in the RuBoot bootstrap sequence.

It seems clear that for feminine nouns like "ruka" for "hand", storage in the singular nominative should suffice, because other forms may be derived by using the OutBuffer to remove the nominative ending "-a" and to substitute oblique endings of any required length.

For regular Russian verbs in the group containing "dumat'" for "think" and "dyelat'" for "do", it should be enough to store the infinitive form in the RuBoot module, because the OutBuffer can be used to create the various forms of the present tense. If a human user inputs such a verb in a non-infinitive form, such as in "ty cheetayesh" for "you read", the OutBuffer can still manipulate the forms without reference to an infinitive. This new ability is important for the learning of new verbs. Since there is no predicting in which form a user will input a new Russian verb, the OutBuffer technique must serve the purpose of creating the verb-forms and of tagging their engrams with the proper parameters of person and number.

Since JavaScript is not a main language for artificial intelligence in robots, our Dushka Russian AI serves only as a proof-of-concept for how to construct a robot AI Mind in a more suitable language. We use JavaScript now because it can display the Russian and because a Netizen can call the AI into being simply by using Internet Explorer to click on the link of the Душка AI Mind.




Russian AI Mind Journal

These notes record the coding of the Russian AI Mind Dushka
in JavaScript for Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE).

Mon.26.DEC.2011 -- Creating the OutBuffer

Today in the Dushka Russian AI we will try to create the OutBuffer function to change the declensional ending of a Russian verb.

Tues.27.DEC.2011 -- Right-justifying ЗНАЮ

Although we have created the OutBuffer module to permit the SpeechAct module to hold a Russian verb right-justified in place for a change of inflectional endings on the fly, we are finding it difficult to obtain an "alert" report of the exact contents of the OutBuffer towards the end of a pass through SpeechAct. Into SpeechAct we put a diagnostic "alert" box, and then it appeared that OutBuffer was being called but no data were being revealed.

By testing for the contents when four characters trigger an IF-clause, we have determined that the OutBuffer does indeed take a word from the PhoBuffer and display the word in a right-justifed position. We were able to toggle from English to Russian typing and input the Russian verb for "I know", which soon showed up in a right-justified location when the WhatBe module asked a question about the Russian word. Now we are ready to design code that will intercept a Russian verb being "spoken" and change its inflectional ending on the fly, a feat which we will consider to be a major advance in our creation of a Russian AI Mind.


JavaScript Russian AI Programming Journal

These notes record the coding of the Russian AI Mind Dushka in JavaScript for Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE). The free, open-source Russian AI will grow large enough to demonstrate a proof-of-concept in artificial intelligence, until the intensive computation of thinking and reasoning threatens to slow the MSIE Web browser down to a crawl. To evolve further, the Russian AI Mind must escape to more powerful programming languages on robots or supercomputers.

Thurs.22.DEC.2011 -- Selecting the Bootstrap Vocabulary

We would like soon to implement the diagnostic display so that we may observe the build-up of the innate Russian vocabulary. Therefore we copy the necessary code from the English AI Mind and we troubleshoot until suddenly we observe a diagnostic display. Now the way is clear for us to keep adding Russian words until we have enough innate concepts for the Russian AI to demonstrate thinking in Russian.


25 Sep 2011 (updated 25 Sep 2011 at 20:24 UTC) »
JavaScript AI Mind Programming Journal

Sun.25.SEP.2011 -- VisRecog Visual Recognition

The JavaScript artificial intelligence (JSAI) from the AI4U textbook has finally reached a stage where the free strong AI software may be embodied in a seeing robot. Although the JSAI as an AiApp could see out through the camera of a smartphone, the JavaScript programming language is not suitable for controlling the MotorOutput of a robot. The MindForth AI in the Forth programming language is capable of controlling a robot, but there is some question whether software packages such as Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) can be ported into Forth so as to implement VisRecog, or whether perhaps the computer vision tail should wag the AI software dog and either MindForth or the JavaScript AI Mind should be ported into one of the OpenCV languages so as to accelerate the emergence of robotic True AI.

Sun.25.SEP.2011 -- Implementing VisRecog

In JavaScript we create only the stub of the VisRecog module, because we need to show where VisRecog belongs on the robot AI MindGrid in case an enterprising robot-maker or a skilled AI mindmaker decides to take up the Grand Challenge of integrating the thinking AI software with the seeing robot hardware. So first we expand the English bootstrap EnBoot sequence of the JavaScript AI by adding in the English vocabulary words "SEE" and "NOTHING" as a verb to discuss robot vision and a noun or pronoun to serve as the default "nothing" that the stub of VisRecog can actually see. When VisRecog reaches a stage of development commensurate with OpenCV, we may expect the robot visual system to say things like "I see a bird" or "I see you".


JavaScript AI Mind Programming Journal -- Fri.10.JUN.2011

Fri.10.JUN.2011 -- The AI Mind Needs MSIE.

When we first started coding the JavaScript artificial intelligence (JSAI) back in anno 2000, we tried to make it cross-browser compatible, especially with Netscape Navigator. Unfortunately, as the artificial Mind quickly became extremely complex, we found that we could not maintain compatibility, and that it was too distracting to try. It was hard enough to code the AI in Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE), but at least MSIE gave us the functionality that the AI Mind needed.

Meanwhile the AI Mind has evolved in both jJavaScript and Win32Forth. Sometimes the JSAI was ahead of the Forth AI, and sometimes vice versa. In our efforts to get mental phenomena to work in either programming language, we sometimes veered apart in one language from our current algorithm in the other language. Now we are bringing the AI codebase back into as close a similarity as possible in both MSIE JavaScript and Win32Forth (plus 64-bit iForth). We may not offer cross-browser compatibility, but we are making our free AI source code more understandable by letting Netizens examine each mind-module in either Forth or JavaScript.

Fri.10.JUN.2011 -- Solving the AI Identity Crisis

Today we have been running the AI Mind in both JavaScript and Forth so as to troubleshoot the inability of the JSAI to answer the input question "who are you" properly. The JSAI was responding "I HELP KIDS", which is an idea stored in the knowledge base (KB) of the AI as it comes to life in either Forth or JavaScript. The input query is supposed to activate the concept of "BE" sufficiently to override the activation of the verb "HELP" that comes to mind when the Mind tries to say something about itself. We had to adjust the values in the JSAI NounAct module slightly lower for the creation of a "spike" of spreading activation, so that the "BE" concept would win out over the "HELP" concept in the generation of a thought. We have removed the identity crisis of an AI that could describe itself in terms of doing but not being.

We gradually improve the AI Mind in JavaScript by identifying and combatting the most glaring bug or glitch that pops up when we summon the virtual entity into existence. Any Netizen using MSIE may simply click on a link to the AiMind program and watch the primitive creature start thinking and communicating. The AI would need a robot body and sensors to flesh out its concepts with knowledge of the real world, but we may approach the AI with a Kritik der reinen Vernunft -- as a German philosopher once wrote about "The Critique of Pure Reason." We are building a machine intellect of pure, unfleshed-out reason, able to think with you and to discuss its thought with you. Our process of eliminating each glitch or bug when we notice it, means that the AI Mind has the chance to evolve in two ways. The first AI evolution occurs in these initial offerings of the AI software to our fellow AI enthusiasts. The second AI evolution occurs when the AI propagates to other habitats such as the http://aimind-i.com website. If you are the CEO of a corporate entity, you had better ask around and find out who in your outfit is in charge of keeping up with AI evolution and how many Forthcoders are in your employ.






JavaScript AI Mind Programming Journal -- Mon.30.MAY.2011

The JavaScript artificial intelligence (JSAI) is a client-side AiApp
whose natural habitat is a desktop computer, a laptop or a
smartphone
.

Mon.30.MAY.2011 -- Searching the AI Knowledge Base.

The JavaScript artificial intelligence (JSAI) is now being updated with new code from the MindForth AI, which on 29 May 2011 gained the ability to search its knowledge base (KB) twice in response to a single query and provide different but valid answers by means of the neural inhibition of the first answer in order to arrive next at the second answer. In other words, the JSAI will be able to discuss a subject exhaustively in terms of what it knows about the subject -- a major step in our achievement of the MileStone of self-referential thought on the RoadMap to artificial general intelligence. The AI source code has not yet been fine-tuned. We hope to achieve in JavaScript the basic functionality that has been created in MindForth.

Upshot: After we transferred mutatis mutandis all the pertinent code from MindForth into the AiMind.html program in JavaScript, the JSAI still did not work right. We had to hunt down and fix (by commenting out) some lines of obsolete code in the SpreadAct mind-module, where negative activation values were being reset to zero -- to the detriment of inhibition-values, which need to slowly PsiDecay upwards towards zero. We then achieved JSAI functionality on a par with MindForth. We entered new knowledge into the knowledge base (KB). We queried the KB twice with the same question, and the artificial AI Mind correctly gave us two different answers in complete agreement with the knowledge base.





JavaScript AI Mind Programming Journal -- Wed.18.MAY.2011

The JavaScript artificial intelligence (JSAI) is a clientside AiApp whose natural habitat is a desktop computer, a laptop or a smartphone.

Wed.18.MAY.2011 -- Houston, We Have a Problem

When we submit "who are you" as a query to the AI Mind, it searches the knowledge base (KB) and it remembers that it is ANDRU - - a ROBOT and a PERSON (a different answer each time that you pose the same existential question). Unfortunately, the software finds the first instance of concept stored in recent memory and spits out the phonemic engram from the auditory memory channel without regard to whether the stored word is a singular form or a plural form. How can we get the most advanced open-source AI in these parsecs to stop saying "I AM ROBOTS"? The AI may have to start skipping over plural engrams when searching for a singular noun. Therefore, let us perform a little psychosurgery on the AI Mind software and see if we can zero in on a singular noun-form during self-referential thought.

First we use a few JavaScript "alert" boxes in BeVerb() and in NounPhrase() to see what values are being carried along in the variables that keep track of grammatical number as the AI Mind generates a thought in response to user input. We see that the subject number is available in the background, so perhaps we can alter the design of the Mind to insist speaking a singular noun to go with a singular subject. Even though ROBOT and ROBOTS are the same concept, they are not the same expression of the concept. By the way, this issue is another AI mindmaker (Mentifex) problem that had to be solved in due course, that is, rather well along in the AI development process and not at the first blush of AI newbie enthusiasm.

Upshot: Gradually in the NounPhrase module we introduced code to skip over the retrieval of any word in auditory memory if the correct num (ber) was not found to match the the same number of the subject of an input query. The AI began to answer "who are you" with "I AM ROBOT". This bugfix makes the AI Mind more complex and therefore subject to potentially latent problems such as knowing a word only in the plural and not in the singular. However, the same bugfix brings the JSAI closer to machine reasoning and thinking with a syllogism such as, "All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore Socrates is mortal."


MindForth Programming Journal -- 2011 May 16

Now that we have cracked the hard problem of AI wide open, we wish to share our results with all nations.

Mon.16.MAY.2011 -- List of Mentifex AI Accomplishments

We are still working on the MileStone of self-referential thought on our RoadMap to artificial general intelligence (AGI). We look back upon a small list of accomplishments along the way.

* two-step selection of BeVerbs;
* AudRecog morpheme recognition;
* look-ahead A/AN selection;
* seq-skip method of linking verbs and objects;
* SpeechAct inflectional endings;
* neural inhibition for variety in thought;
* provisional retention of memory tags;
* differential PsiDecay.

Mon.16.MAY.2011 -- Achieving AI Mental Stability

Until we devised an AI algorithm for differential PsiDecay in the JavaScript artificial intelligence (JSAI), stray activations had been ruining the AI thought processes for months and years. We now port the PsiDecay solution from the JSAI into MindForth. Meanwhile, Netizens with Microsoft Internet Explorer (MSIE) may point the browser at the AiMind.html page and observe the major open-source AI advance in action. Enter "who are you" as a question to the AI Mind not just one time but several times in a row. Observe that the JSAI tells you everything it knows about itself, because neural inhibition immediately suppresses each given answer in order to let a variety of other answers rise to the surface of the AI consciousness. Before the mad scientist of Project Mentifex jotted down the eureka brainstorm, "[ ] Fri.13.MAY.2011 Idea: Put gradations into PsiDecay ?" and wrote the code the next day, the AI Minds were not reliable for mission-critical applications. Now the AI Forthmind is about to become more mentally stable than its creator. We only need to port some JSAI code to Forth.


JavaScript AI Mind Programming Journal -- Fri.13.MAY.2011

Fri.13.MAY.2011 -- A Problem in Search of Eureka

When the question "who are you" is input repeatedly to the JavaScript Artificial Intelligence (JSAI), the AI needs to retain the self-concept of "I" as the subject for each of all possible answers to the question. The MindForth AI already performs well in this regard, but the JSAI has been letting go of the self-concept subject. Therefore we will try to make sure that the JSAI uses the same activational routines as MindForth does.

Sat.14.MAY.2011 -- Using Differential PsiDecay

The artificial Mind has difficulty holding onto the subject of a query because of stray activations that build up on "also-ran" concepts that were proposed but not accepted as answers to recent queries. The activation on otherwise legitimate answers builds up so rapidly and so substantially that an also-ran concept threatens to dislodge the very subject of the query and become a new subject of a thought which does not supply the knowledge requested by the query. For instance, when we twice ask "who are you" of the 12may11A.html JSAI as released onto the Web two days ago, it answers first "I AM ROBOTS" and then "A PERSON IS PERSON", apparently because the also-ran concept of "PERSON" has risen too high in activation to let the self-concept "I" serve as the subject of the response. Meanwhile, yesterday we may have had a "eureka" moment that could supply a solution so simple and yet so effective that it provides a tipping point in the break-out phenomenon of True AI.

Now, we don't want our AI Minds to start asking teenage boys if they would like a little game of GLOBAL THERMONUCLEAR WAR, Matthew, but don't be surprised if suddenly No Such Agency starts removing every trace of Mentifex AI from every corner of the World Wide Web. Did you know that, when things got a little hot during World War Two, the U.S. government began removing books on the mathematics of Georg Riemann from libraries all over America? Say, when's the last time you saw a copy of AI4U?

The secret to True AI is to embue the artificial Mind not with the linear PsiDecay that MindForth has always had, but with the differential PsiDecay of also-ran concepts so that stray activations dwindle more rapidly from high spikes than from merely modest spikes. In a living neural-net like the human brain, do we not expect a sharp spike to fall more rapidly than a simple upswell? So let us modify the PsiDecay code and try to make higher activations subside more rapidly.

We are trying to ntroduce "differential" psi-decay. Suppose we have also-ran NounPhrase concepts like

39=ROBOT at 54 act;
104=PERSON at 68 act;
33=ANDRU at 82 act;
We want the high-activation also-rans to drop to an activation low enough to avoid dislodging the input subject. Then we want at least one also-ran to be high enough to be selected as an answer to the input query. We want each decade or octet of high activation to be lowered by not just one point, but by a precipitous drop that still keeps the relative ranking of the also-rans. For instance, we could ordain that all activations above thirty could arrange themselves in a spread between twenty- nine and forty, so that
39 becomes 31;
49 becomes 32;
59 becomes 33;
69 becomes 34;
79 becomes 35;
89 becomes 36;
99 becomes 37; and so on
Upshot: We inserted similar code into the JavaScript AI Mind and it began to function better than ever. Somehow the JSAI is now more advanced than the MindForth AI, until we can port the new functionality into Win32Forth.


MindForth Programming Journal (MFPJ) 2011 May 7

Sat.7.MAY.2011 -- Improving Neural Inhibition

Something is preventing neural inhibition from operating immediately when we ask the AI Mind a "who-are-you" question. The inhibition begins to occur only after a pause or delay, and we need to find out why. The problem may be that the "predflag" for predicate nominatives is not being set soon enough. The "predflag" is set towards the end of the BeVer b mind-module, and it governs the inhibiting of nouns as predicate nominatives in the NounPhrase module. We see through troubleshooting that the earlier engram in a pair of selected-noun engrams is being inhibited properly down to minus thirty-two points of conceptual activation, but apparently the present-time engram in the pair is only going down to zero activation. It looks as though calls to PsiClear from the EnCog (English cognition) module were interfering in the pairing of inhibitions shared by the old engram that won selection and the new engram being stored as the record of a generated thought. Then a further problem developed because the AI was not letting go of transiitive verbs that served within an output thought. We inserted code to inhibit each transitive verb after thinking, and we began to obtain a variety of outputs from the AI in response to queries.

Sun.8.MAY.2011 -- Selecting New Inhibition Variables

Today we are creating two new inhibition variables, "tseln" for "time of selection of noun" in NounPhrase, and "tselv" for "time of selection of verb" in VerbPhrase. We need these variables to keep track of the selection-time of an "inhibend" concept to be inhibited after being thought, so that the AI Mind can avoid repeating the same knowledge-base retrieval over and over again. We stumbled upon neural inhibition for response-variety in our MfPj work of 5 September 2010. We were so astonished by the implications that we issued a Singularity Alert (q.v.). Now we are ready to install a general mechanism of temporary inhibition throughout the AI MindGrid.

Sun.8.MAY.2011 -- Debugging Spurious Inflection

Although MindForth has suddenly become more intelligent than ever, the AI makes the grammatical mistake of saying "I HELPS KIDS". We need to track down why the SpeechAct module is adding an inflectional "S" to the verb "HELP".

The VerbPhrase module governs the sending of an "S" inflection into the SpeechAct module. The pertinent code was not fully checking for a verb in the third person singular, so we added an IF-THEN clause requiring that the prsn variable be set to three for an inflectional "S" to be added to a verb being spoken. The bugfix worked immediately.


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